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Primary Infection, seronegative references

Early Lyme disease ‘seronegative’ is not a ‘separate condition’ - it is an aspect of the disease recognizing patients may test negative when infected. 

Coyle PK, Deng Z, Schutzer SE, Belman AL, Benach J, Krupp LB, Luft B. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurology 1993;43:1093- 1097. [PubMed]

Coyle PK, Schutzer SE, Deng Z, et al. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antigen in antibody-negative cerebrospinal fluid in neurologic Lyme disease. Neurology. 1995;45(11):2010–2015. [PubMed]

Dattwyler RJ, Volkman DJ, Luft BJ, Halperin JJ, Thomas J, Golightly MG. Seronegative Lyme Disease. Dissociation of T- and B-Lymphocyte Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi. N Engl J Med 1988;319:1441-6. [PubMed]

Holak H1, Holak N, Huzarska M, Holak S. Tick inoculation in an eyelid region: report on five cases with one complication of the orbital myositis associated with Lyme borreliosis. Klin Oczna. 2006;108(4-6):220-4. [PubMed]

Karma A, Seppälä I, Mikkilä H, Kaakkola S, Viljanen M, Tarkkanen A. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics of ocular Lyme borreliosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;119(2):127-35. [PubMed]

Lawrence C, Lipton RB, Lowy FD, Coyle PK. Seronegative Chronic Relapsing Neuroborreliosis. Eur Neurol 1995;35:113-117. [PubMed

Some definitions of Terminology

✓  The secondary stage results from the dissemination of Borrelia during the early latent stage.

✓  The late stage is considered chronic if the duration is more than six months.

✓ ** (double red asterisks) indicates possibility of fatality from the condition 

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