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Late Lyme borreliosis of bone and joint references

Deanehan JK, Kimia AA, Tan Tanny SP, et al. Distinguishing Lyme from septic knee monoarthritis in Lyme disease-endemic areas. Pediatrics. 2013;131(3):e695- 701. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2531. [PubMed]

Jones KL, McHugh GA, Glickstein LJ, Steere AC. Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi genotypes in patients with Lyme arthritis: High frequency of ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer type 1 strains in antibiotic-refractory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60(7):2174-2182. doi:10.1002/art.24812. [PubMed]

Lesnicar G, Zerdoner D. Temporomandibular joint involvement caused by Borrelia Burgdorferi. J Cranio-Maxillo-fac Surg Off Publ Eur Assoc Cranio-Maxillo-fac Surg. 2007;35(8):397-400. doi:10.1016/j.jcms.2007.06.003. [PubMed]

Pañczuk A, Tokarska-Rodak M, Kozioł-Montewka M, Plewik D. The incidence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti coinfections among foresters and farmers in eastern Poland. J Vector Borne Dis. 2016;53(4):348-354. [PubMed]

Renaud I, Cachin C, Gerster J-C. Good outcomes of Lyme arthritis in 24 patients in an endemic area of Switzerland. Jt Bone Spine Rev Rhum. 2004;71(1):39-43. doi:10.1016/S1297-319X(03)00160-X. [PubMed]

Schmid G. Epidemiology and Clinical Similarities of Human Spirochetal Diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 1989;11(Supplement 6):S1460-S1469. doi: 10.1093/clinids/11.supplement_6.s1460. [PubMed]

Yoshinari NH, de Barros PJ, Bonoldi VL, Ishikawa M, Battesti DM, Pirana S, da Fonseca AH, Schumaker TT. [Outline of Lyme borreliosis in Brazil]. [in Portuguese]. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo. 1997;52(2):111-7. [PubMed


Some definitions of Terminology

✓  The secondary stage results from the dissemination of Borrelia during the early latent stage.

✓  The late stage is considered chronic if the duration is more than six months.

✓ ** (double red asterisks) indicates possibility of fatality from the condition 


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