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List of references for psychiatric symptoms of Lyme Disease

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This extensive list of peer-reviewed references demonstrating the association between Lyme Borreliosis, co-infections and psychiatric symptoms was provided by Robert C Bransfield, MD, DLFAPA, to the New York Senate after the recent hearing on Lyme Disease. As both patients and doctors are struggling with the confusion about the psychiatric expression of Lyme Borreliosis and with the reversal of the causal effect ("is the mental state the cause of the disease or rather a symptom?"), we included this list for you. It may be helpful, for example in dealing with accusations of Child Protective Services.


There are several thousand peer-reviewed references demonstrating the association between infections and mental symptoms and at least 65 different microbes have been recognized as causing mental symptoms. Over three hundred peer-reviewed articles describe the causal association between Lyme/tick-borne diseases and mental symptoms, pathophysiology, morbidity and mortality some of which are included in the attached addendum. Lyme disease: a neuropsychiatric illness is a major and classic article summarizing this association. A Controlled Study of Cognitive Deficits in Children With Chronic Lyme Disease is a particularly useful resource for describing some of the cognitive symptoms associated with Lyme/tick-borne diseases.

Attempted suicide and completed suicide associated with neuropsychiatric manifestations of Lyme disease and other tick-borne disease has been observed and reported by the author and many other clinicians. An article in the American Journal of Psychiatry, Higher Prevalence of Antibodies to Borrelia Burgdorferi in Psychiatric Patients Than in Healthy Subjects compared 499 psychiatric inpatients to matched pair healthy controls and found significantly more psychiatric patients were seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi (33% vs. 19%), thereby demonstrating an association between Borrelia burgdorferi infections and psychiatric morbidity. In contrast, there are only a few poor quality articles that attempt to negate the causal association between tick-borne diseases and psychiatric illness that lack scientific merit.

Within these articles there is significant evidence that more extensive antibiotic treatment is needed to control the psychiatric symptoms associated with Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.


Peer-Reviewed References for Psychiatric Symptoms
 and Lyme/Tick-Borne Diseases

A controlled study of deficits in children with chronic Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Tager, F., Fallon, B., Keilp, J, Rissenberg, M., Jones, C.R. & Liebowitz, M. SOURCE: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 2001; 13: 500-507.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis [letter] 
AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Nields JA. 
SOURCE: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Summer;10(3):366-7

Acute and Chronic Lyme Disease: Controversies for Neuropsychiatry. AUTHORS: Hurley RA, Taber KH. SOURCE: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 20:1, Winter 2008

Acute and chronic pain associated with Lyme borreliosis: clinical characteristics and pathophysiologic mechanisms. AUTHORS: Zimering JH, Williams MR, Eiras ME, Fallon BA, Logigian EL, Dworkin RH et al. SOURCE: Pain. 2014 Aug;155(8):1435-1438.

Acute and chronic neuroborreliosis with and without CNS involvement: a clinical, MRI, and HLA study of 27 cases. AUTHORS: Krüger H, Heim E, Schuknecht B, Scholz S. SOURCE: J Neurol. 1991 Aug;238(5):271-80.

Acute Lyme Neuroborreliosis With Transient Hemiparesis and Aphasia. AUTHORS: Sokolov A, Lienhard R, Du Pasquier R, Véronique Erard V. SOURCE: Annals of Emergency Medicine. Published Online: February 25, 2015

A Girl with Seizures. AUTHOR: Carla Rothaus. SOURCE: NEJM. May 22nd, 2015.

A Groundhog, a Novel Bartonella Sequence, and My Father’s Death. AUTHORS: Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Cadenas MB, Vissotto de Paiva Diniz PP. SOURCE: Emerging Infectious Diseases • • 2009 Aug;15(12): 2080-6

Alcohol and epilepsy: a case report between alcohol withdrawal seizures and neuroborreliosis. AUTHORS: Gheorghiev C, De Montleau F, Defuentes G. SOURCE: Encephale. 2011 Jun;37(3):231-7.

Altered mental status, an unusual manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease: A case report. AUTHORS: Chabria SB, Lawrason J. SOURCE: J Med Case Reports. 2007 Aug 9;1:62.

Alzheimer's disease and infection: Do infectious agents contribute to progression of Alzheimer's disease? AUTHORS: Honjo K, van Reekum R, Rand Nicolaas, Verhoeff NPLG. SOURCE: Alzheimer's and Dementia. Vol 5;4, July 2009, p 348-360

Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch's and Hill's criteria. AUTHOR: Miklossy J. SOURCE: J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Aug 4;8(1):90. [Epub ahead of print]

Alzheimer Disease: a novel hypothesis integrating spirochetes, biofilm, and the immune system. AUTHORS: Allen HB, Morales D, Jones K, Joshi S. SOURCE: Journal of Neuroinfectious Diseases. 

Alzheimer's disease Braak Stage progressions: reexamined and redefined as Borrelia infection transmission through neural circuits. AUTHOR: MacDonald AB. SOURCE: Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(5):1059-64. Epub 2006 Nov 17.

Alzheimer's neuroborreliosis with trans-synaptic spread of infection and neurofibrillary tangles derived from intraneuronal spirochetes. AUTHOR: MacDonald AB. SOURCE: Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(4):822-5. Epub 2006 Oct 20.

Antibodies against OspA epitopes of Borrelia burgdorferi cross-react with neural tissue. AUTHORS: Alaedini A, Latov N. SOURCE: J Neuroimmunol. 2005 Feb;159(1-2):192-5. Epub 2004 Nov 26.

Anti-neural antibody reactivity in patients with a history of Lyme borreliosis and persistent symptoms. AUTHORS: Stricker RB, Johnson L. SOURCE: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 24 (2010) 1025

Anti-neural antibody reactivity in patients with a history of Lyme borreliosis and persistent symptoms. AUTHORS: Volkman D. SOURCE: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 24 (2010)

A Review of Death Certificates Listing Lyme Disease as a Cause of Death in the United States. AUTHORS: Kugeler KJ, Griffith KS, Gould LH et al.  SOURCE: Clin Infect Dis. (2011) 52 (3), 364-367. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciq157.

The association between tick-borne infections, Lyme borreliosis and autism spectrum disorders 
AUTHORS: Bransfield RC, Wulfman JS, Harvey WT, Usman AI.
SOURCE: Medical Hypotheses. 5 Nov 2007

Association of Lyme Disease and Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Type: Is it Inflammation Mediated? AUTHORS: Mattingley DW, Koola MM. SOURCE: Indian J Psychol Med. 2015 Apr-Jun;37(2):243-6.

Audiologic manifestations of patients with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome 
AUTHORS: Shotland LI, Mastrioanni MA, Choo DL, Szymko-Bennett YM, Dally LG, Pikus AT, Sledjeski K, Marques A 
SOURCE: Ear Hear. 2003 Dec;24(6):508-17

Autism and Lyme Disease AUTHORS: Robert C. Bransfield, MD, Mason Kuhn, MS. SOURCE: JAMA. 2013;310(8):856 doi:10.1001/jama.2013.194747

A woman in her 50s with manic psychosis. AUTHORS: Pasareanu AR, Mygland Å, Kristensen Ø. SOURCE: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2012 Mar 6;132(5):537-9

Bacterial infection and Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis.
AUTHORS: Maheshwari P1, Eslick GD1. SOURCE: J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;43(3):957-66. doi: 10.3233/JAD-140621.

Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a mother and son potentially associated with tick exposure. AUTHORS: Maggi RG, Ericson M, Mascarelli PE, Bradley JM, Breitschwerdt EB. SOURCE: Parasites & Vectors April 2013, 6:101 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-101. 

Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites. AUTHORS: Mascarelli PE, Maggi RG, Hopkins S, Mozayeni BR, Trull CL, Bradley JM, Hegarty BC, Breitschwerdt EB. SOURCE: Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6:98 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-98. 

Bartonella sp. Bacteremia in Patients with Neurological and Neurocognitive Dysfunction. AUTHORS: Breitschwerdt EB. Maggi RG, Nicholson WL, Cherry NA, Woods CW. SOURCE: Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 46(9):2856–2861. 

The basic syndromes of neurological disorders in Lyme borreliosis. AUTHORS: Dekonenko EP, Umanskii KG, Virich IE, Kupriianova LV, Rudometov, IuP, Bagrov FI. SOURCE: Ter Arkh 1995; 67 (11) : 52-53

Benefit of intravenous antibiotic therapy in patients referred for treatment of neurologic Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Stricker RB, Delong AK, Green CL, Savely VR, Chamallas SN, Johnson L. SOURCE: Int J Gen Med 2011 9; 4 : 639-646

Behavioral Consequences of Infections of the Central Nervous System: With Emphasis on Viral Infections. AUTHORS: Tselis A, MD, Booss J. SOURCE: J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 31:289–98, 2003

Beta-amyloid deposition and Alzheimer's type changes induced by Borrelia spirochetes. AUTHORS: Miklossy J, Kis A, Radenovic A, Miller L, Forro L, Martins R, Reiss K, Darbinian N, Darekar P, Mihaly L, Khalili K. SOURCE: Neurobiol Aging. 2006 Feb;27(2):228-36.

Bell’s Palsy of the Gut and other Manifestations of Lyme and Associated Diseases. AUTHOR: Sherr VT. SOURCE: Practical Gastroenterology April 2006

Benefit of intravenous antibiotic therapy in patients referred for treatment of neurologic Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Stricker RB, DeLong AK, Green C, Savely VR, Chamallas SN, Johnson L. SOURCE: International Journal of General Medicine 2011:4 639–646. 

Bilateral dorsolateral thalamic lesions disrupts conscious recollection. AUTHORS: Edelstyn NM, Hunter B, Ellis SJ. SOURCE: Neuropsychologia. 2006;44(6):931-8. Epub 2005 Oct 25.

Biology and neuropathology of dementia in syphilis and Lyme disease. AUTHOR: MIKLOSSY J. EDITORS: Duyckaerts C, Litvan I. SOURCE: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 89 (3rd series) Dementias 2008 Elsevier B.V.

Borrelia Burgdorferi: A Clinical Chameleon. AUTHORS: Samuel B, Axelband J, Mckim K, Leh D. SOURCE: Consultant. 2015;55(7):530-535.

Borrelia burgdorferi: Cell Biology and Clinical Manifestations in Latent Chronic Lyme. AUTHORS: Smith AJ, Oertle J, Prato D. SOURCE: Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Vol.4 No.4, December 2014. 

Borrelia burgdorferi in the central nervous system: experimental and clinical evidence for early invasion. AUTHORS: Garcia-Monco JC, Villar BF, Alen JC, Benach JL. SOURCE: J Infect Dis. 1990 Jun;161(6):1187-93.

Borrelia burgdorferi central nervous system infection presenting as an organic schizophrenialike disorder. 
AUTHORS: Hess A, Buchmann J, Zettl UK, Henschel S, Schlaefke D, Grau G, Benecke R. 
SOURCE: Biol Psychiatry 1999 Mar 15;45(6):795

Borrelia burgdorferi in the nervous system: the new "great imitator". AUTHOR: Pachner AR. SOURCE: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:56-64.

Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the brain in chronic lyme neuroborreliosis and may be associated with Alzheimer disease. AUTHORS: Miklossy J, Khalili K, Gern L, Ericson RL, Darekar P, Bolle L, Hurlimann J, Paster BJ. SOURCE: J Alzheimers Dis. 2004 Dec;6(6):639-49; discussion 673-81.

Borrelia burgdorferi-seropositive chronic encephalomyelopathy: Lyme neuroborreliosis? An autopsied report. 
AUTHORS: Kobayashi K, Mizukoshi C, Aoki T, Muramori F, Hayashi M, Miyazu K, Koshino Y, Ohta M, Nakanishi I, Yamaguchi N. 
SOURCE: Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 1997 Nov-Dec;8(6):384-90.

Borreliosis--simultaneous Lyme carditis and psychiatric disorders--case report. AUTHORS: Legatowicz-Koprowska M, Gziut AI, Walczak E, Gil RJ, Wagner T. SOURCE: Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2008 May;24(143):433-5. Polish.

Brain SPECT Imaging in Chronic Lyme Disease. 
AUTHORS: Plutchok JJ, Tikofsky RS, Liegner KB, Fallon BA, Van Heertum RL. 
SOURCE: Journal of Spirochetal and Tick Borne-Diseases, 1999; 6: 10-16.

Can infections and immune reactions to them cause violent behavior? AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: Abstracts of 11th Psychoimmunology Expert Meeting, March 8–11, 2012

Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research. Volume 18, Issue 2, Page 42 (March 2012)

Carbamazepine in the treatment of Lyme disease-induced hyperacusis. 
AUTHORS: Nields JA, Fallon BA, Jastreboff PJ. 
SOURCE: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999 Winter;11(1):97-9

A case of meningoencephalitis by the relapsing fever spirochaete Borrelia miyamotoi in Europe. AUTHORS: Hovius JWR et al. SOURCE: Vol 382 August 17, 2013

Case records of the MSG Hospital. Case 1-2017: A 70-Year-Old Woman with Gradually Progressive Loss of Language. AUTHORS: Marsel Mesulam M, Dickerson, BC, Janet C. Sherman JC, Hochberg D, Gonzalez RG, Johnson KA, Frosch MA. SOURCE: N Engl J Med 2017;376:158-67.

Case report: Lyme disease and complex partial seizures. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: Journal of Spirochetes and Tick-borne Diseases; Fall/Winter 1999, Vol 6, p123-125

Case Shows How Lyme Disease Can Mimic New-Onset Panic Disorder. AUTHOR: Sinclair L. SOURCE: Psychiatric News. 2013 Vol 48(13)1. DOI: 10.1176/ 

Catatonia in a 14 year-old girl: treatment with clorazepam and carbamazepine, a 10-year follow-up. AUTHORS: Askenazy F, Dor E, Benoit M, Dupuis G, Serret S, Myquel M, Seddiki Y. SOURCE: Encephale. 2010 Feb;36(1):46-53.

Catatonic syndrome in acute severe encephalitis due to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Pfister HW, Preac-Mursic V, Wilske B, Rieder G, Forderreuther S, Schmidt S, AUTHORS: Kapfhammer HP. SOURCE: Neurology. 1993 Feb;43(2):433-5.

Central nervous system manifestations of human ehrlichiosis. 
AUTHORS: Ratnasamy N, Everett ED, Roland WE, McDonald G, Caldwell CW. 
SOURCE: Clin Infect Dis 1996 Aug;23(2):314-9

Central nervous system manifestations of Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Pachner AR, Duray P, Steere AC. SOURCE: Arch Neurol. 1989 Jul;46(7):790-5.

Cerebral metabolic changes associated with Lyme disease 
AUTHORS: Newberg A, Hassan A, Alavi A. 
SOURCE: Nucl Med Commun 2002 August;23(8):773-777

Chronic Bacterial and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative and Neurobehavioral Diseases. AUTHORS: Nicholson GL. SOURCE: Lab Medicine. 2008;39(5):291-9.

Chronic borrelia encephalomyeloradiculitis with severe mental disturbance: immunosuppressive versus antibiotic therapy. AUTHORS: Kollikowski HH, Schwendemann G, Schulz M, Wilhelm H, Lehmann HJ. SOURCE: J Neurol. 1988 Jan;235(3):140-2.

Chronic central nervous system involvement in Lyme borreliosis. AUTHORS: Kohler J, Kern U, Kasper J, Rhese-Küpper B, Thoden U. SOURCE: Neurology. 1988 Jun;38(6):863-7.

Chronic inflammation and amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer's disease -- role of Spirochetes. AUTHORS: Miklossy J. SOURCE: J Alzheimers Dis. 2008 May;13(4):381-91. Review.

Chronic Lyme Disease Linked to ADHD in Adults. AUTHOR: Young JL. SOURCE: American Psychiatric Association's 2012 Annual Meeting. Medscape. May 08,2012. 

Chronic neuroborreliosis in infancy. AUTHORS: Zamponi N, Cardinali C, Tavoni MA, Porfiri L, Rossi R, Manca A. SOURCE: Ital J Neurol Sci (1999) 20:303-307

Chronic neurologic manifestations of erythema migrans borreliosis. 
AUTHORS: Ackermann R, Rehse-Kupper B, Gollmer E, Schmidt R. 
SOURCE: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:16-23.

Chronic neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Logigian EL, Kaplan RF, Steere AC. SOURCE: N Engl J Med. 1990 Nov 22;323(21):1438-44.

Chronic or late lyme neuroborreliosis: analysis of evidence compared to chronic or late neurosyphilis. AUTHORS: Miklossy J. SOURCE: Open Neurol J 2012; 6: 146-57.

Chronic or Late Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Present and Future 
AUTHORS: Miklossy J, Donta S, Mueller K, Nolte O, Perry G. SOURCE: The Open Neurology Journal. 2012; 6: Pp. 78 [DOI: 10.2174/1874205X01206010078]

Clinical and demographic characteristics of psychiatric patients seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi. AUTHORS: Hájek T, Libiger J, Janovská D, Hájek P, Alda M, Höschl C. SOURCE: Eur Psychiatry. 2006 Mar;21(2):118-22.

Clinical manifestations and epidemiological aspects leading to a diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis: neurological and psychiatric manifestations in the course of Lyme borreliosis. AUTHORS: Créange A. SOURCE: Med Mal Infect. 2007 Jul-Aug;37(7-8):532-9. Epub 2007 Mar 26. Review. French.

Co-existance of toxoplasmosis and neuroborreliosis - a case report. 
AUTHORS: Gustaw K, Beltowska K, Dlugosz E. 
SOURCE: Ann Agric Environ Med. 2005;12(2):305-8.

Coexisting of borreliosis, depression and psoriasis--case report. AUTHORS: Oglodek E, Mos D, Araszkiewicz A. SOURCE: Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2010 Jan;28(163):53-5.

Cognitive functioning in late Lyme borreliosis. AUTHORS: Krupp LB, Masur D, Schwartz J, Coyle PK, Langenbach LJ, Fernquist SK, Jandorf L, Halperin JJ. SOURCE: Arch Neurol. 1991 Nov;48(11):1125-9.

Cognitive Impairments after Tick-borne Encephalitis. AUTHORS: Gustaw-Rothenberg K. SOURCE: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 2008;26:165-168.

Cognitive processing speed in Lyme disease. 
AUTHORS: Pollina DA, Sliwinski M, Squires NK, Krupp LB. 
SOURCE: Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 1999 Jan;12(1):72-8.

Commentary Re: a critical appraisal of the mild axonal peripheral neuropathy of late neurologic Lyme disease, by Wormser et al. DMID 2016. AUTHOR: Greenberg R. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017 May;88(1):106. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2017.01.017. Epub 2017 Feb 8. PubMed PMID: 28365059.

Common mechanisms involved in Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes: a key role of chronic bacterial infection and inflammation. AUTHORS: Miklossy J, McGeer PL. SOURCE: Aging (Albany NY). 2016 Apr;8(4):575-88. 

Complaints attributed to chronic Lyme disease: depression or fibromyalgia? AUTHORS: Berman DS, Wenglin BD. SOURCE: Am J Med. 1995 Oct;99(4):440.

Concepts of trust among patients with serious illness. AUTHORS: Mechanic D, Meyer S. SOURCE: Soc Sci Med. 2000 Sep;51(5):657-68.

Concurrent infection of the central nervous system by Borrelia burgdorferi and Bartonella henselae: evidence for a novel tick-borne disease complex. AUTHORS: Eskow E, Rao RV, Mordechai E. SOURCE: Arch Neurol. 2001 Sep;58(9):1357-63.

Concurrent Lyme disease and babesiosis. Evidence for increased severity and duration of illness. AUTHORS: Krause PJ, Telford SR 3rd, Spielman A, Sikand V, Ryan R, Christianson D, Burke G, Brassard P, Pollack R, Peck J, Persing DH. SOURCE: JAMA. 1996 Jun 5;275(21):1657-60.

Concurrent medical conditions with pediatric bipolar disorder. AUTHORS: Scheffer RE, Linden S. SOURCE: Curr Opin Psychiatry. (2007) 20(4), 398-401. Review.

Concurrent neocortical borreliosis and Alzheimer's disease: Demonstration of a spirochetal cyst form. AUTHOR: MacDonald AB. SOURCE: Ann N Y Acad Sci 1988; 539:468-470.

Concurrent medical conditions with pediatric bipolar disorder. AUTHORS: Scheffer RE, Linden S. SOURCE: Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2007 Jul;20(4):398-401. Review.

Consequences of treatment delay in Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Cameron DJ. SOURCE: J Eval Clin Pract. 2007 Jun;13(3):470-2.

Constipation Heralding Neuroborreliosis 
AUTHORS: Shamim A, Shamim S; Liss G; Nylen E; Pincus J; Yepes M. 
SOURCE: Arch Neurol. 2005;62:671-673.

A Controlled Study of Cognitive Deficits in Children With Chronic Lyme Disease 
AUTHORS: Tager FA, Fallon BA, Keilp J, Rissenberg M, Jones CR, Liebowitz MR. 
SOURCE: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 13:500-507, November 2001 

Correlates of Perceived Health-Related Quality of Life in Post-treatment Lyme Encephalopathy. Authors: Chandra AM, Keilp JG, Fallon BA. Source: Psychosomatics 2013(Jul) Psychosomatics. 2013 Jul 9. pii: S0033-3182(13)00078-9. doi:10.1016/j.psym.2013.04.003. [Epub ahead of print]

Delirium and Lyme disease. 
AUTHORS: Caliendo MV, Kushon DJ, Helz JW. 
SOURCE: Psychosomatics. 1995 Jan-Feb;36(1):69-74.

Delusional disorders in the course of tick-born encephalitis and borreliosis in patients with hemophilia A and posttraumatic epilepsy--diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. AUTHORS: Grzywa A, Karakuła H, Górecka J, Chuchra M. SOURCE: Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2004 Jan;16(91):60-3. Polish.

Dementia associated with infectious diseases. AUTHOR: Almeida OP, Lautenschlager NT. SOURCE: Int Psychogeriatr. 2005;17 Suppl 1:S65-77. Review.

Demyelinating polyradiculitis in neuro borreliosis. AUTHORS: Corral I, Sanchis G, Garcia-Ribas G, Quereda C, Escudero R, de Blas G. SOURCE: Neurologia 1995 Feb; 10 (2) : 110-113

Detection of Bartonella henselae by polymerase chain reaction in brain tissue of an immunocompromised patient with multiple enhancing lesions. Case report and review of the literature. AUTHORS: George TI, Manley G, Koehler JE, Hung VS, McDermott M, Bollen A. SOURCE: J Neurosurg. 1998 Oct;89(4):640-4. Review.

Diagnosis of Infectious or Inflammatory Psychosyndromes
. AUTHOR: Bechter K. SOURCE: The Open Neurology Journal, 2012, 6:113-118. [DOI: 10.2174/1874205X01206010113]

The diagnosis of Lyme disease. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: Hosp Pract (Minneap). 1996 Aug 15;31(8):35, 40.

Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: JAMA. 1998 Sep 23-30;280(12):1049; author reply 1051.

Diagnostic pitfalls in a young Romanian ranger with an acute psychotic episode. AUTHORS: Nagy EE, Rácz A, Urbán E, Terhes G, Berki T, Horváth E, Georgescu AM, Zaharia-Kézdi IE. SOURCE: Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016 May 3;12:961-7. eCollection 2016. 

Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Disease with Special Reference to Psychiatric Practice. 
AUTHORS: Nields JA, Fallon BA. 
SOURCE: Directions in Psychiatry, 1998, 18: 209-228.

Differential Diagnosis and the Suspension of Judgment. AUTHOR: Ashley Graham Kennedy. SOURCE: J Med Philos (2013) doi: 10.1093/jmp/jht043 First published online: August 29, 2013. 

Differential diagnostic problems in Lyme disease (Borrelia infection resulting in acute exogenous psychosis). AUTHORS: Császár T, Patakfalvi A. SOURCE: Orv Hetil. 1994 Oct 9;135(41):2269-71.

A disease in disguise. Lyme can masquerade as migraine, or as madness. AUTHORS: Cowley G, Underwood A. SOURCE: Newsweek. 2004 Aug 23;144(8):62.

Divergent Opinions of Proper Lyme Disease Diagnosis and Implications For Children Co-Morbid with Autism Spectrum Disorder. AUTHORS: Kuhn M, Bransfield RC. SOURCE: Medical Hypotheses Accepted: June 6, 2014; Published Online: June 16, 2014 

Do bartonella infections cause agitation, panic disorder, and treatment-resistant depression? AUTHORS: Schaller JL, Burkland GA, Langhoff PJ. SOURCE: MedGenMed. 2007 Sep 13;9(3):54.

Does process-specific slowing account for cognitive deficits in Lyme disease? AUTHORS: Pollina DA, Elkins LE, Squires NK, Scheffer SR, Krupp LB. SOURCE: Appl Neuropsychol. 1999;6(1):27-32.

Dramatic response to a 3-week course of ceftriaxone in late neuroborreliosis mimicking atypical dementia and normal pressure hydrocephalus. AUTHORS: Topakian R, Artemian H, Metschitzer B, Lugmayr H, Kühr T, Pischinger B. SOURCE: J Neurol Sci. 2016. Jul 15;366:146-8.

Early disseminated Lyme disease: Lyme meningitis. AUTHOR: Pachner AR. SOURCE: Am J Med; (1995) 98(4A):30S-37S

Early-life programming of later-life brain and behavior: a critical role for the immune system. AUTHORS: Staci D. BilboSD, Jaclyn M. Schwarz JM. SOURCE: Frontiers in Behvrioral Neurosciences. 2009:3

Efficacy of a long-term antibiotic treatment in patients with a chronic Tick Associated Poly-organic Syndrome (TAPOS). AUTHOR: Clarissou J, Song A, Bernede C, Guillemot D, Dinh A, Ader F, Perronne C, Salomon J. SOURCE: Med Mal Infect. 2009 Feb;39(2):108-15. Epub 2009 Jan 4.

Elevated cerebrospinal fluid kynurenic acid levels in patients with tick-borne encephalitis. AUTHORS: Holtze M, Mickiene´ A. Atlas A, Lindquist L, Schwieler L. SOURCE: Journal of Internal Medicine. 2012, 272; 394–401.

Emerging infectious determinants of chronic diseases. AUTHORS: O'Connor SM, Taylor CE, Hughes JM. SOURCE: Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jul;12(7):1051-7.

Endogenous paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome caused by Borrelia encephalitis 
AUTHORS: Barnett W, Sigmund D, Roelcke U, Mundt C. 
SOURCE: Nervenarzt 1991 Jul;62(7):445-7 [German]

Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings of human ehrlichiosis in the United States, 1988. 
AUTHORS: Eng TR, Harkess JR, Fishbein DB, Dawson JE, Greene CN, Redus MA, Satalowich FT. 
SOURCE: JAMA 1990 Nov 7;264(17):2251-8

Estimation of cognitive and affective disorders occurrence in patients with Lyme borreliosis. AUTHORS: Oczko-Grzesik B, Kępa L, Puszcz-Matlińska M, Pudło R, Żurek A, Badura-Głąbik T. SOURCE: Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017 Mar 1;24(1):33-38.

Etiopathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders: Fitting the pieces of the puzzle together. AUTHORS: Gentile I, Zappulo E, Militerni R, Pascotto A, Borgia G, Bravaccio C. SOURCE: Med Hypotheses. 2013 Jul;81(1):26-35. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2013.04.002. Epub 2013 Apr 25.

European neuroborreliosis: quality of life 30 months after treatment. AUTHORS: Eikeland R, Mygland A, Herlofson K, Ljøstad U. SOURCE: Acta Neurol Scand. 2011Nov;124(5):349-54.

Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid serotonin (5-HT) concentration in patients with post-Lyme disease syndrome--preliminary study. AUTHORS: Kepa L, Oczko-Grzesik B, Badura-Glombik T. SOURCE: Przegl Epidemiol. 2008;62(4):793-800. Polish.

Evidence for Mycoplasma, ssp., Chalmydia pneumoniae, and Human Herpes-virus 6 Coinfections in Blood of patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. AUTHORS: Nicholson GL, Gann R, Nicholson NL, Haier J. SOURCE: Journal of Neuroscience Research 2007 85.

Failure of tetracycline therapy in early Lyme disease. 
AUTHORS: Dattwyler RJ, Halperin JJ. 
SOURCE: Arthritis Rheum. 1987 Apr;30(4):448-50.

First-episode psychosis in a managed care setting: clinical management and research. AUTHORS: Jarskog LF, Mattioli MA, Perkins DO, Lieberman JA. SOURCE: Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Jun;157(6):878-84.

FLAIR and magnetization transfer imaging of patients with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. AUTHORS: Morgen K, Martin R, Stone RD, Grafman J, Kadom N, McFarland HF, Marques A. SOURCE: Neurology. 2001 Dec 11;57(11):1980-5.

Functional Brain Imaging and Neuropsychological Testing in Lyme Disease 
AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Das S, Plutchok JJ, Tager F, Liegner K, Van Heertum R. 
SOURCE: CID 1997; 25:S57-63 

Geographical and seasonal correlation of multiple sclerosis to sporadic schizophrenia. AUTHOR: Fritzsche M. SOURCE: Int J Health Geogr. 2002 Dec 20;1(1):5.

Geographic correlation of schizophrenia to ticks and tick-borne encephalitis. 
AUTHOR: Brown JS Jr. 
SOURCE: Schizophr Bull 1994;20(4):755-75

Geographic distribution of Lyme disease in Mudanjiang 
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The Physician as a Patient: Lyme Disease, Ehrlichiosis, and Babesiosis: A Recounting of a Personal Experience with Tick-Borne Diseases. AUTHORS: Sherr VT. 
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Plaques of Alzheimer's disease originate from cysts of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete. AUTHORS: MacDonald AB. SOURCE: Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(3):592-600. Epub 2006 May 3.

Polymorphic mental disorders in the course of Lyme borreliosis--case study. AUTHORS: Helon B, Tluczek TW, Buczyjan A, Adamczyk-Helon A, Wojnarowicz M, Mikula R, Cicinski P, Bojarska J.
SOURCE: Psychiatr Pol. 2009 May-Jun;43(3):353-61.

Positive anti-Borrelia antibodies in patients with clinical manifestations compatible with neuroborreliosis. AUTHORS: Izquierdo G, Aguilar J, Barranquero A, Navarro G, Borobio MV, Angulo S, Domínguez I, Quesada MA. SOURCE: Neurologia. 1992 Feb;7(2):50-4. Spanish.

“Post-Lyme disease syndrome”. AUTHORS: Błaut-Jurkowska J, Jurkowski M. Pol Merkur. SOURCE: Lekarski. 2016 Feb;40(236):129-33.

Post-Lyme syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychiatric similarities and differences. AUTHORS: Gaudino EA, Coyle PK, Krupp LB. SOURCE: Arch Neurol. 1997 Nov;54(11):1372-6.

Post-Lyme Syndrome–Associated Polyneuropathy Treated With Immune Immunoglobulin and a Luteolin-Containing Formulation. AUTHOR: Theoharides TC. SOURCE: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology _ Volume36, Number 3, June2016. 

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome following Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Kanjwal K, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb BP. SOURCE: Cardiology Journal. 2011;18(1):63-6. 

Potential uses of Modafinil in Psychiatric Disorders. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. 
SOURCE: Journal of Applied Research, 2004 Spring; 4(2): 198-208

Preventable cases of autism: relationship between chronic infectious disease and neurological outcome. AUTHORS: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: Pediatric Health. (2009) April 3(2).

Primarily chronic and cerebrovascular course of Lyme neuroborreliosis: case reports and literature review. AUTHORS: Wilke M, Eiffert H, Christen HJ, Hanefeld F. SOURCE: Arch Dis Child. 2000 Jul;83(1):67-71. Review.

Post-Lyme syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychiatric similarities and differences. 
AUTHORS: Gaudino EA, Coyle PK, Krupp LB. 
SOURCE: Arch Neurol 1997 Nov;54(11):1372-6

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi serum antibodies in 651 patients with predominantly neurologic diseases 
AUTHORS: Muller M, Retzl J, Plank E, Scholz H, Ziervogel H, Stanek G. 
SOURCE: Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1993;105(21):599-602. [German]

Protein markers for Alzheimer disease in the frontal cortex and cerebellum. AUTHORS: Verdile G, Gnjec A, Miklossy J, Fonte J, Veurink G, Bates K, Kakulas B, Mehta PD, Milward EA, Tan N, Lareu R, Lim D, Dharmarajan A, Martins RN. SOURCE: Neurology. 2004 Oct 26;63(8):1385-92.

Psychiatric Aspects of Infectious Diseases. AUTHORS: Mufaddel, A., Omer, A.A. and Salem, M.O. (2014) Open Journal of SOURCE: Psychiatry, 2014; 4, 202-217.

Psychiatric aspects of Lyme disease in children and adolescents: 
A community epidemiologic study in Westchester, New York 
AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Bird H, Hoven C, Cameron D, Liebowitz MR, Shaffer S. 
SOURCE: JSTD 1994; 1:98-100

Psychiatric and Cognitive Features of Lyme Disease.  AUTHORS: Tager FA, Fallon BA. SOURCE: Psychiatric Annals 31: 173-181, 2001.

Psychiatric Issues in Infectious Diseases. AUTHOR: Levenson JL. SOURCE: Primary Psychiatry 2006;13(5):29-32.

Psychiatric manifestations of Lyme borreliosis 
AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Nields JA, Parsons B, Liebowitz MR, Klein DF. 
SOURCE: J Clin Psychiatry 1993 Jul;54(7):263-8

Psychiatric presentations of non-HIV infectious diseases. 
AUTHORS: Schneider RK, Robinson MJ, Levenson JL. 
SOURCE: Psychiatr Clin North Am 2002 Mar;25(1):1-16

Psychiatric symptomatology associated with presumptive Lyme disease: Clinical evidence. AUTHORS: Battaglia H, Alvarez G, Mercau A, Fay M, Campodonico M. SOURCE: Journal of Spirochetal and Tick-Borne Diseases 2000; Spring/September;1-6.

The psychoimmunology of Lyme and associated diseases Abstracts of 12th Psychoimmunology Expert Meeting, March 6-9, 2014. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: Neurology, Psychiatry & Brain Research. 20(1);8. (February 2014). 

The Psychoimmunology of Lyme/Tick-Borne Diseases and its Association with Neuropsychiatric Symptoms. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: The Open Neurology Journal, 2012, 6, 2012; 6:88-93. [DOI: 10.2174/1874205X01206010088].

Psychologic disorders in acute and persistent neuroborreliosis 
AUTHORS: Poplawska R, Konarzewska B, Gudel-Trochimowicz I, Szulc A. 
SOURCE: Pol Merkuriusz Lek 2001 Jan;10(55):36-7 [Polish]

Psychological states and neuropsychological performances in chronic Lyme disease 
AUTHORS: Elkins LE, Pollina DA, Scheffer SR, Krupp LB. 
SOURCE: Appl Neuropsychol 1999;6(1):19-26

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of repeated IV antibiotic therapy for Lyme encephalopathy 
AUTHORS: Fallon BA, et al. 
SOURCE: Neurology, first published on October 10, 2007 as doi

Rapidly progressive frontal-type dementia associated with Lyme disease 
AUTHORS: Waniek C, Prohovnik I, Kaufman MA, Dwork AJ. 
SOURCE: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1995 Summer;7(3):345-7

Rare and unusual dementias. AUTHORS: Gupta S, Fiertag O, James Warner J. SOURCE: Advances in psychiatric treatment (2009), vol. 15, 364–371 doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.107.003558

A Reappraisal of the U.S. Clinical Trials of Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome. AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Petkova E, Keilp JG, Britton CB.
SOURCE: The Open Neurology Journal, 2012; 6:79-87. [DOI: 10.2174/1874205X01206010079]. 

Recurrent and relapsing course of borreliosis of the nervous system 
AUTHORS: Omasits M, Seiser A, Brainin M. 
SOURCE: Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1990 Jan 5;102(1):4-12. Review. [German]

Regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive deficits in chronic lyme disease. 
AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Keilp J, Prohovnik I, Heertum RV, Mann JJ. 
SOURCE: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2003 Summer;15(3):326-32.

Regional cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate in persistent Lyme encephalopathy. AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Lipkin RB, Corbera KM, Yu S, Nobler MS, Keilp JG, Petkova E, Lisanby SH, Moeller JR, Slavov I, Van Heertum R, Mensh BD, Sackeim HA. SOURCE: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 May;66(5):554-63.

Relationship of Inflammation and Autoimmunity to Psychiatric Sequelae in Lyme Disease. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: PSYCHIATRIC ANNALS. 2012 42(9):337-41. 

Relevance of Chronic Lyme Disease to Family Medicine as a Complex Multidimensional Chronic Disease Construct: A Systematic Review. AUTHORS: Borgermans L, Goderis G, Vandevoorde J, Devroey D. SOURCE: International Journal of Family Medicine. Volume 2014 (2014)

Repeated Antibiotic Therapy in Chronic Lyme Disease. 
AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Weis N, Tager F, Fein L, Liegner K, Liebowitz MR. 
SOURCE: Journal of Spirochetal and Tick Borne Diseases, 1999; 6: 1-9.

Results of a prospective standardized study of 30 patients with chronic neurological and cognitive disorders after tick bites
AUTHORS: Roche Lanquetot R, Ader F, Durand MC, Carlier R, Defferriere H, Dinh A, Herrmann JL, Guillemot D, Perronne C, Salomon J. SOURCE: Med Mal Infect. 2008 Aug 20. [Article in French]

Reversible cerebral hypoperfusion in Lyme encephalopathy 
AUTHORS: Logigian EL, Johnson KA, Kijewski MF, Kaplan RF, Becker JA, Jones KJ, Garada BM, Holman BL, Steere AC. 
SOURCE: Neurology 1997 Dec;49(6):1661-70. "Reversible" dementia in 2011.
AUTHORS: Michel JM, Sellal F 
SOURCE: Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2011 05 1; 9 (2): 211-225 

Role of Chronic Bacterial and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative, Neurobehavioral, Psychiatric, Autoimmune and Fatiguing Illnesses. AUTHORS: Nicholson GL, Haier J. SOURCE: British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 2009:2(4)20-8.

The role of kynurenines in disorders of the central nervous system: Possibilities for neuroprotection. AUTHORS: Vamos E, Pardutz A, Klivenyi P, Toldi J, Vecsei L. SOURCE: J Neurol Sci. 2009 Mar 4.

Role of psychiatric comorbidity in chronic Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Hassett AL, Radvanski DC, Buyske S, Savage SV, Gara M, Escobar JI, Sigal LH. SOURCE: Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Dec 15;59(12):1742-9. 

Rule out these causes of inattention before diagnosing ADHD. AUTHOR: Bhatia R. SOURCE: Current Psychiatry. 2016 October;15(10):32-C3

Safety of intravenous antibiotic therapy in patients referred for treatment of neurologic Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Stricker RB, Green CL, Savely VR, Chamallas SN, Johnson L.  SOURCE: Minerva Med. 2010 Feb;101(1):1-7.

Schizophrenia - a Mild Encephalitis? AUTHOR: Bechter K. SOURCE: Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. (2013) 2013 Apr 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Screening for Lyme disease in hospitalized psychiatric patients: prospective serosurvey in an endemic area. AUTHORS: Nadelman RB, Herman E, Wormser GP. SOURCE: Mt Sinai J Med. 1997 Nov;64(6):409-12.

Seasonal correlation of sporadic schizophrenia to Ixodes ticks and Lyme borreliosis 
AUTHOR: Fritzsche M. 
SOURCE: International Journal of Health Geographics 2002 1:2 

Secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus. A complication of chronic neuroborreliosis. AUTHORS: Druschky K, Stefan H, Grehl H, Neundörfer B. SOURCE: Nervenarzt. 1999 Jun;70(6):556-9. German.

Severity of Lyme disease with persistent symptoms. Insights from a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. AUTHOR: Cameron D. SOURCE: Minerva Med. 2008 Oct;99(5):489-96.

Signs and significance of a tick-bite: psychiatric disorders associated with Lyme disease. AUTHOR: Sno HN. SOURCE: Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2012;54(3):235-43.

Short-course treatment in neurobrucellosis: a study in Iran. AUTHORS: Asadipooya K, Dehghanian A, Omrani GH, Abbasi F. SOURCE: Neurol India. 2011 Jan-Feb;59(1):101-3.

Sleep quality in Lyme disease. 
AUTHORS: Greenberg HE, Ney G, Scharf SM, Ravdin L, Hilton E.
SOURCE: Sleep. 1995 Dec;18(10):912-6.

Spirochetal cyst forms in neurodegenerative disorders,...hiding in plain sight. AUTHORS: MacDonald AB. SOURCE: Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(4):819-32. Epub 2006 Jul 7.

SPECT Brain Imaging in Chronic Lyme Disease. AUTHORS: Donta ST, Noto RB, Vento JA. SOURCE: Clinical Nuclear Medicine & Volume 37, Number 9, September 2012

Spirochetal diseases of the nervous system. AUTHORS: Cintron R, Pachner AR. SOURCE: Curr Opin Neurol. 1994 Jun;7(3):217-22. Review.

Spirochetes on the Brain. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: Science Research May 13, 2008. 

Startle myoclonus induced by Lyme neuroborreliosis: a case report. AUTHORS: Schoof J, Kluge C, Heinze HJ, Galazky I. SOURCE: J Med Case Rep 2013(May); 7(1): 124. DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-7-124

Study and treatment of post Lyme disease (STOP-LD): a randomized double masked clinical trial. AUTHORS: Krupp LB, Hyman LG, Grimson R, Coyle PK, Melville P, Ahnn S, Dattwyler R, Chandler B. SOURCE: Neurology. 2003 Jun 24;60(12):1923-30.

Study design questions regarding long-term assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease. AUTHOR: Greenberg R. SOURCE: Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 1;61(11):1764-5. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ704. Epub 2015 Aug 13. PubMed PMID: 26270689.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Cheherama M, Zagardo MT, Koski CL. SOURCE: Neurology (1997);48:520-523

Successful treatment of Lyme encephalopathy with intravenous ceftriaxone. AUTHORS: Logigian EL, Kaplan RF, Steere AC. SOURCE: J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):377-83.

Suicide and Lyme and associated diseases. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017 Jun 16;13:1575-1587. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S136137.

Survival strategies of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Embers ME, Ramamoorthy R, Philipp MT. SOURCE: Microbes Infect. 2004 Mar;6(3):312-8. Review.

Tc-99m HMPAO Brain SPECT Imaging in Chronic Lyme Disease. AUTHORS: Plutchok JJ, Tikofsky RS, Liegner K, Kochevar JM, Fallon BA, Van SOURCE: Heertum RL. J of Spirochetal and Tick-borne Diseases 6: 117-122, 1999.

Tick-borne infections and pediatric bipolar disorder. AUTHOR: Greenberg R. SOURCE: Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research Volume 22, Issue 1, March 2016, Pages 11. 13th Psychoimmunology Expert Meeting March 3–6, 2016

The association of lyme disease with loss of sexual libido and the role of urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction. AUTHORS: Puri BK, Shah M, Julu PO, Kingston MC, Monro JA. SOURCE: Int Neurourol J. 2014 Jun;18(2):95-7.

The effect of artesunate on short-term memory in Lyme borreliosis. AUTHOR: Puri BK et al. SOURCE: Medical Hypotheses 2017

The lack of correlation between the incidence of Lyme disease and deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease cannot reflect the lack of involvement of Borrelia burgdorferi in Alzheimer’s dementia. AUTHOR: Miklossy J. SOURCE: The Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. Aug 2014

The neuropsychiatric assessment of Lyme disease. AUTHOR: Bransfield, R. SOURCE: Available online at 

The neuropsychiatric manifestations of Lyme Borreliosis. AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Nields JA, Burrascano JJ, Liegner K, DelBene D, Liebowitz MR. SOURCE: Psychiatric Quarterly 1992; 63: 95-117

The American Psychiatric Association Psychiatric Guidelines for the Psychiatric Assessment of Adults Third Edition. AUTHORS: APA Work Group on Psychiatric Evaluation. SOURCE:

The Psychoimmunology of Lyme/Tick-Borne Diseases and its Association with Neuropsychiatric Symptoms. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: The Open Neurology Journal. (2012) 6, (Suppl 1-M3) 88-93.

The Putative Role of Viruses, Bacteria, and Chronic Fungal Biotoxin Exposure in the Genesis of Intractable Fatigue Accompanied by Cognitive and Physical Disability. AUTHORS: Morris G, Berk M, Walder K, Maes M. SOURCE: Mol Neurobiol. 2015 Jun 17.

The Relationship between Tourette’s Syndrome and Infections. AUTHORS: Krause D L, Norbert Müller N. SOURCE: The Open Neurology Journal, 2012, 6, (Suppl 1-M8) 124-128. 

The Role of Infection and Immune Responsiveness in a Case of Treatment-Resistant Pediatric Bipolar Disorder. AUTHOR: Greenberg R. SOURCE: Front. Psychiatry, 22 May 2017 |

The underdiagnosis of neuropsychiatric Lyme disease in children and adults. AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Kochevar J, Nields J.  SOURCE: In Diagnostic Dilemmas. Edited by David Tomb. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 1998.

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Carries a High Risk of Incomplete Recovery in Children. AUTHORS: Fowler A, Forsman L, Eriksson M, Wickstrom R. SOURCE: J Pediatr 2013;-:---).

Tick-borne infections--a growing public health threat to school-age children. Prevention steps that school personnel can take. AUTHOR: Hamlen R. SOURCE: NASN Sch Nurse 2012(Mar); 27(2): 94-100. 

Tick-borne infections and pediatric bipolar disorder. AUTHOR: Greenberg R. SOURCE: Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research Volume 22, Issue 1, March 2016, Pages 11. 13th Psychoimmunology Expert Meeting March 3–6, 2016

Transfection "Junk" DNA - a link to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease? AUTHORS: MacDonald AB. SOURCE: Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(6):1140-1. Epub 2006 Feb 14.

Treating Depression and Compensatory Narcissistic Personality Style in a Man with Chronic Lyme Disease. AUTHOR: Leedy MJ, Jackson M, Callahan JL. SOURCE: Clinical Case Studies. 2007 Oct 6(5):430-42. 

Treatment of patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Bransfield R, Brand S, Sherr V. SOURCE: N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1424-5.

Treatment-Resistant Depression: Progress and Limitations. AUTHORS: Amsterdam JD, O’Reardon JP. SOURCE: Psychiatric Annals. 1998;28(11):633

Tremor, seizures and psychosis as presenting symptoms in a patient with chronic lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). AUTHORS: Markeljević J, Sarac H, Rados M. SOURCE: Coll Antropol. 2011 Jan;35 Suppl 1:313-8.

Tullio phenomenon and seronegative Lyme borreliosis [letter] 
AUTHORS: Nields JA, Kueton JF. 
SOURCE: Lancet 1991 Jul 13;338(8759):128-9

The neuropsychiatric assessment of Lyme disease. AUTHOR: Bransfield, R. SOURCE: Available online at 

The role of kynurenines in disorders of the central nervous system: Possibilities for neuroprotection. AUTHORS: Vamos E, Pardutz A, Klivenyi P, Toldi J, Vecsei L. SOURCE: J Neurol Sci. 2009 Mar 4.

The Underdiagnosis of Neuropsychiatric Lyme Disease in Children and Adults 
AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Kochevar JM, Gaito A, Nields JA. 
SOURCE: Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 1998; 21: 693-703 

Undiagnosed Lyme disease in adults with schizophrenia. AUTHORS: Koola MM et al. SOURCE: Schizophrenia Research. Published Online: August 06, 2015.

Untreated neuroborreliosis: Bannwarth's syndrome evolving into acute schizophrenia-like psychosis. A case report. 
AUTHORS: Roelcke U, Barnett W, Wilder-Smith E, Sigmund D, Hacke W. 
SOURCE: J Neurol 1992 Mar;239(3):129-31

An unusual presentation of cat scratch encephalitis. AUTHORS: Chan L, Reilly KM, Snyder HS. SOURCE: J Emerg Med. 1995 Nov-Dec;13(6):769-72.

Update on lyme disease: the hidden epidemic. AUTHOR: Savely VR. SOURCE: J Infus Nurs. 2008 Jul-Aug;31(4):236-40.

The use of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in North Staffordshire. AUTHORS: Hodgson R, Belgamwar R, Al-tawarah Y, MacKenzie G. SOURCE: Hum Psychopharmacol. 2005 Mar;20(2):141-7.

Value of clinical symptoms, intrathecal specific antibody production and PCR in CSF in the diagnosis of childhood Lyme neuroborreliosis. AUTHORS: Issakainen J, Gnehm HE, Lucchini GM, Zbinden R. SOURCE: Klin Padiatr 1996 May-Jun; 208 (3) : 106-109

Vasculitis, cerebral infarction and persistent Bartonella henselae infection in a child. AUTHORS: Balakrishnan N, Ericson M, Maggi R, Breitschwerdt EB. SOURCE: Parasit Vectors. 2016 May 10;9(1):254.

Wann ist eine Borreliose eine Neuroborreliose? Die Borreliose und ihre neuro-psychiatrischen Symptome. AUTHORS: Lorenz M, Redecker H. SOURCE: (2013)

WAIS-III and WMS-III performance in chronic Lyme disease. 
AUTHORS: Keilp JG, Corbera K, Slavov I, Taylor MJ, Sackeim HA, Fallon BA. 
SOURCE: J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2006 Jan;12(1):119-29

A 25-year-old woman with hallucinations, hypersexuality, nightmares, and a rash. 
AUTHORS: Stein SL, Solvason HB, Biggart E, Spiegel D. 
SOURCE: Am J Psychiatry. 1996 Apr;153(4):545-51.

A 58-year-old man with a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease, 1 year later. Steere AC. JAMA. 2002 Aug 28;288(8):1002-10.

A 58-year-old man with a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease, 1 year later. Burns RB, Hartman EE. JAMA. 2003 Dec 24;290(24):3247.

Additional Articles by Dr. Bransfield:

  • Aggression and Lyme Disease. 
  • All In Your Head? 
  • A Tale of Two Spirochetes. 
  • Lyme Disease and Cognitive Impairments. 
  • Lyme, Depression, and Suicide
  • Lyme Neuroborreliosis and Aggression (14th International Scientific Conference on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Disorder. April 21-23, 2001)
  • Microbes and Mental Illness
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Infectious Encephalopathies
  • Sex and Lyme Disease
  • Spirochetes on the Brain
  • The Klempner Article. Bransfield R. Brand R.
  • The Neuropsychiatric Assessment of Lyme Disease. &
  • The Psychotropic Management of Late-Stage Lyme and Associated Diseases
  • What Causes Illness and Mental Illness?
  • Sources

Some of the above references and additional articles are also listed online at: Neuropsychiatric Lyme Disease Online Resources:

And Cavete Diagnosen (Cavete, lat.: hütet euch davor, d.h. hier: vor diesen Diagnosen):

Read 20931 times Last modified on Thursday, 07 September 2017 13:31

Huib Kraaijeveld

Initiator On Lyme Foundation