Other cutaneous manifestations references

Abele DC, Anders KH, Chandler FW. Benign lymphocytic infiltration (Jessner- Kanof): another manifestation of borreliosis? J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21(4 Pt 1):795-7. [PubMed]

Baldari U, Cattonar P, Nobile C, Celli B, Righini MG, Trevisan G. Infantile acrodermatitis of Gianotti-Crosti and Lyme borreliosis. Acta Derm Venereol. 1996;76(3):242-3. [PubMed]

Hashimoto Y, Takahashi H, Matsuo S, Hirai K, Takemori N, Nakao M, Miyamoto K, Iizuka H. Polymerase chain reaction of Borrelia burgdorferi flagellin gene in Shulman syndrome. Dermatology. 1996;192(2):136-9. [PubMed]

Lesire V, Machet L, Toledano C, de Muret A, Maillard H, Lorette G, Vaillant L. Atypical erythema multiforme occurring at the early phase of Lyme disease? Acta Derm Venereol. 2000;80(3):222. [PubMed]

Olson JC, Esterly NB. Urticarial vasculitis and Lyme disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22(6 Pt 1):1114-6. [PubMed


Some definitions of Terminology

✓  The secondary stage results from the dissemination of Borrelia during the early latent stage.

✓  The late stage is considered chronic if the duration is more than six months.

✓ ** (double red asterisks) indicates possibility of fatality from the condition 


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