Lyme oculopathy references

Karma A, Seppälä I, Mikkilä H, Kaakkola S, Viljanen M, Tarkkanen A. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics of ocular Lyme borreliosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;119(2):127-35. doi:10.1016/s0002-9394(14)73864-4. [PubMed]

Mikkilä HO, Seppala IJ, Viljanen MK, Peltomaa MP, Karma A. The expanding clinical spectrum of ocular lyme borreliosis. Ophthalmology 2000;107:581-587. [PubMed]

Raja H, Starr MR, Bakri SJ. Ocular manifestations of tick-borne diseases. Surv Ophthalmol. 2016;61(6):726-744. Review. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2016.03.011. [PubMed]

Sathiamoorthi S, Smith WM. The eye and tick-borne disease in the United States. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2016;27(6):530-537. Review. DOI: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000308 [PubMed


Some definitions of Terminology

✓  The secondary stage results from the dissemination of Borrelia during the early latent stage.

✓  The late stage is considered chronic if the duration is more than six months.

✓ ** (double red asterisks) indicates possibility of fatality from the condition 


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