Granuloma annulare, morphea, localized scleroderma, lichen references

Aberer E, Schmidt BL, Breier F, Kinaciyan T, Luger A. Amplification of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi in urine samples of patients with granuloma annulare and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. 1999;135(2):210-2. [PubMed]

Asbrink E, Brehmer-Andersson E, Hovmark A. Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans--a spirochetosis. Clinical and histopathological picture based on 32 patients; course and relationship to erythema chronicum migrans Afzelius. Am J Dermatopathol. 1986;8(3):209-19. [PubMed]

Buechner SA, Winkelmann RK, Lautenschlager S, Gilli L, Rufli T. Localized scleroderma associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical observations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;29(2 Pt 1):190-6. [PubMed]

Eisendle K, Grabner T, Zelger B. Morphoea: a manifestation of infection with Borrelia species? Br J Dermatol. 2007;157(6):1189-98. [PubMed]

Kaya G, Berset M, Prins C, Chavaz P, Saurat JH. Chronic borreliosis presenting with morphea- and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus-like cutaneous lesions. a case report. Dermatology. 2001;202(4):373-5. [PubMed]

Malane MS, Grant-Kels JM, Feder HM Jr, Luger SW. Diagnosis of Lyme disease based on dermatologic manifestations. Ann Intern Med. 1991;114(6):490-8. [PubMed

Menni S, Pistritto G, Gelmetti C, Stanta G, Trevisan G. Eruzione a tipo pitiriasi lichenoide con perifollicoliti in corso di borreliosi di Lyme. Eur J Pediat Dermatol. 1994;4:77–80.

Ozkan S, Atabey N, Fetil E, Erkizan V, Günes AT. Evidence for Borrelia burgdorferi in morphea and lichen sclerosus. Int J Dermatol. 2000;39(4):278-83. [PubMed]

Schempp C, Bocklage H, Lange R, Kölmel HW, Orfanos CE, Gollnick H. Further evidence for Borrelia burgdorferi infection in morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus confirmed by DNA amplification. J Invest Dermatol. 1993;100(5):717- 20. [PubMed]

Trevisan G, Rees DH, Stinco G. Morphea Borrelia burgdorferi and localized scleroderma. Clin Dermatol. 1994;12(3):475-9. [ScienceDirect]

Vasudevan B, Chatterjee M. Lyme Borreliosis and Skin. Indian J Dermatol. 2013;58(3): 167–174. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.110822 [PubMed]

Vasudevan B, Sagar A, Bahal A, Mohanty AP. Extragenital lichen sclerosus with aetiological link to Borrelia. MJAFI. 2011;67:370–3. [PubMed]

Zinchuk AN, Kalyuzhna LD, Pasichna IA. Is Localized Scleroderma Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi? Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2016;16(9):577-80. [PubMed

 

Some definitions of Terminology

✓  The secondary stage results from the dissemination of Borrelia during the early latent stage.

✓  The late stage is considered chronic if the duration is more than six months.

✓ ** (double red asterisks) indicates possibility of fatality from the condition 

 

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